The Localization Industry Standards Assocation (LISA) offers a free localization primer available for download. The guide is available in 9 languages, including Arabic.
Over 52 pages, the guide covers the following topics:
- Doing Business in a Global World
- Localization Tools and Technologies
- Localization Costing and Pricing
- Best Practices and Standards
- Future Trends and Challenges
I found this exhibit particularly interesting:
The primer is well worth a download. Registration is required for the English-language edition.